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Andreas Petrus Bernstorff

Andreas Petrus Bernstorff

Mand 1735 - 1797  (61 år)



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  • Navn Andreas Petrus Bernstorff 
    Født 28 aug. 1735  Hannover, Niedersachsen, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted 
    Køn Mand 
    Død 21 jun. 1797  København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted 
    Begravelse Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted 
    Søskende 1 søsken 
    +1. Joachim Bechtold Bernstorff
              f. 1734
              d. 1807  (Age 73 år)
     
    Notater 

    • TITEL: Greve

      Andreas Peter Bernstorff blev født i 1735 og døde i 1797.

      Dansk godsejer og politiker – oprindeligt godsejersøn fra Hannover, der fik sin uddannelse ved et tysk universitet og på adskillige udlandsrejser.

      Bernstorff gik i 1758 ind i dansk udenrigstjeneste og blev udenrigsminister under Christian 7. i perioden 1773-80 samt 1784-97.

      Bernstorff førte neutralitetspolitik – og det lykkedes ham, med stor dygtighed, at holde Danmark uden for de storpolitiske opgør. Med Bernstorff som udenrigsminister støttede Danmark sig til Ruslandog indgik sammen med Rusland i 1780 et væbnet neutralitetsforbund med Sverige.

      Det var Bernstorff der formulerede de første internationale søretsregler, bl.a.: Frit skib giver fri ladning.

      Bernstorff blev i 1780 styrtet af Høegh-Guldberg, som han sammen med kronprinsen, den senere Frederik 6., igen styrtede ved et paladskup i 1784. Herefter fungerede Bernstorff i realiteten som landetsegentlige leder til sin død.

      Et nyt væbnet neutralitetsforbund blev i 1794 indgået med Sverige.

      Under devisen sikkerhed og velstand er det er i høj grad Bernstorff's fortjeneste, at Danmark blev holdt uden for revolutionskrigene.

      Bernstorff var den drivende kraft i de landbrugsreformer der i 1788 førte til ophævelsen af stavnsbåndet.

      Var søn af hannoveransk landråd Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff til Gartow (1708 - 68).
      Født den 28. august 1735, studerede ved universiteterne i Leipzig, Genf og Göttingen. Efter dette, rejste han rundt i Tyskland, Schweiz, Italien, Frankrig, England, og Holland. Under sit ophold i Italien, udnævntes han 1754 til dansk kammerjunker. 1759 kom han til København, og fik straks sæde i det tyske cancellie, deputeret i det vestindiske-guineiske Rente- og Toldkammer og i General- Landoekonomie - og Commercecollegiet.
      1766 deputeret i Rentekammeret og Hvid ridder. 1767 medlem af Overskattedirectionen, og med sin fader og farbror optaget i den danske grevestand.
      1768 deputeret i det forenede Toldkammer- og Commercecollegium, hvor han skal have foranlediget at Det Afrikanske Handelsselskab ophævedes og en ny toldrulle udfærdiget. Da hans farbror blev afskediget, trak han sig også ud af statstjenesten, hvor gerne Struensee end ville have beholdt ham, - og trak sig tilbage til sine godser i Mecklenborg.
      Da Struensee var styrtet, blev han tilbagekaldt, og i 1772, 1ste deputeret i Rentekammeret.
      1773 blev han udenrigsminister, præsident i tyske cancellie m.m. Han fik udvirket at Kielerhusets linier frasagde sig enhver fordring på Sønderjylland, og kongen fik så godt som eneherredømme over Holsteen.
      Både med Sverige, England og Holland var der kurrer på tråden, men ved klog eftergivenhed fik han stridighederne bilagt, og Danmark var i fred med hele verden da den nordamerikanske frihedskrig brød ud. Det drev så blomstrende en handel på alle verdenshave som aldrig tidligere, og havde blandt andet en indbringende fragthandel på og fra de krigsførende lande. Dets skibe blev dog ofte foruroligedeaf franske og spanske, men især af engelske kapere, og Berstorff måtte hyppigt gøre alvorlige indsigelser.
      1778 foreslog han Sverige og Rusland at forny "den væbnede neutralitet", og endelig den 9. juli 1780 fik han traktaten afsluttet på grundlaget af følgende sætning: "Frit Skib gjør frit Gods" så at selv fjendtlig ejendom skulle allevegne gå frit i neutrale skibe, kun ikke krigsvåben og egentlige krigsfornødenheder. Neutralitetstraktaten blev foreløbig Bernstorff's sidste sejr: Preussen ønskede at indtræde i neutralitetsforbundet, men under betingelser som Berstorff fandt alt for gunstige; han afveg desuden i alt for mange stykker fra de øvrige medlemmeraf det Guldbergske ministerium, og den 30.november 1780 tog han atter sin afsked fra statstjenesten for at trække sig tilbage til Mecklenborg. Bernstorff var afventende, fulgte de danske begivenheder, og da kronprinsen (Frederik d. VI) havdestyrtet det Guldbergske regimente, og selv overtaget regeringens tømmer den 14. April 1784, blev Bernstorff atter indkaldt, og den 14. maj indtog han atter sin gamle stilling. Bernstorff nøjedes ikkemed at være udenrigsminister, han øvede en stor indflydelse på alle grene af statens styrelse, nu hjalp han den unge kronprins, Colbjørnsen og Reventlov med gennemførelse af de mange landboreformer som løste den danske bondestand af de lænker under hvilke den hidtil havde sukket. Det var Bernstorff selv der ved sin personlige indflydelse fremkaldte livegenskabets ophør i hertugdømmerne, selvom loven først blev gennemført den 19. December 1804, syv år efter hans død.
      Det er Bernstorffs fortjeneste at Danmark oplevede år med fred og velstand, så regeringen fik ro til at ordne samfundsforholdene.
      I maj 1797 blev han syg, (podagra) og den 21. juni døde Bernstorff. Mage til ligtog som det der fulgte ham til Frederikskirken på Christianshavn havde Danmark næppe set før, og kronprinsen gik, som han selv udtrykte det: "iblandt hans børn" Han følte at han have mistet en faderlig ven.

      ____________________

      Danish statesman, was born at Hanover on the 28th of August 1735. His career was determined by his uncle, Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff, who early discerned the talents of his nephew and induced himto study in the German and Swiss universities and travel for some years in Italy, France, England and Holland, to prepare himself for a statesman’s career. During these Wanderjahre he made the acquaintance of the poets Gellert and Jacobi, the learned Jean-Jacques Barthélemy, the duc de Choiseul, and Gottfried Achenwall, the statistician. At his uncle’s desire he rejected the Hanoverian for theDanish service, and in 2759 took his seat in the German chancery at Copenhagen. In 1767, at the same time as his uncle, he was created a count, and in 1769 was made a privy-councillor. He is describedat this period as intellectual, upright and absolutely trustworthy, but obstinate and self-opinionated to the highest degree, arguing with antiquaries about coins, with equerries about horses, and with foreigners about their own countries, always certain that he was right and they wrong, whatever the discussion might be. He shared the disgrace of his uncle when Struensee came into power, but re-entered the Danish service after Struensee’s fall at the end of 2772, working at first in the financial and economical departments, and taking an especial interest in agriculture. The improvements heintroduced in the tenures of his peasantry anticipated in some respects the agricultural reforms of the next generation.
      In April 1773 Bernstorff was transferred to the position for which he was especially fitted, the ministry of foreign affairs, with which he combined the presidency of the German chancery (for Schleswig-Holstein). His predecessor, Adolf Siegfried Osten, had been dismissed because he was not persona grata at St Petersburg, and Bernstorff’s first official act was to conclude the negotiations whichhad long been pending with the grand-duke Paul as duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The result was the exchangetreaty of the 1st of June (T’.’Iay 21 O.S.) 1773, confirming the previous treaty of 1767 (seeBERNST0RFF, J. H. E.). This was followed by the treaty of alliance between Danmark and Russia of the 12th of August 1773, which was partly a mutually defensive league, and partly an engagement betweenthe two states to upset the new constitution recently established in Sweden by Gustavus III., when the right moment for doing so should arrive. For this mischievous and immoral alliance, which bound Denmark to the wheels of the Russian empress’s chariot and sought to interfere in the internal affairs of a neighbouring state, Bernstorff was scarcely responsible, for the preliminaries had been definitely settled in his uncle’s time and he merely concluded them. But there can be no doubt that he regarded this antiSwedish policy as the correct one for Danmark, especially with a monarch like Gustavus III. on the Swedish throne. It is also pretty certain that the anti-Swedish alliance was Russia’s price for compounding the Gottorp difficulty.
      Starting from the hypothesis that Sweden was “DanmarkNorway’s most active and irreconcilable enemy,” Bernstorff logically included France, the secular ally of Sweden, among the hostile powers with whom an alliance was to be avoided, and drew near to Great Britain as the natural foe of France, especially during the American War of Independence, and this too despite the irritation occasioned in Danmark-Norway by Great Britain’s masterful interpretation of the expression “ contraband.” Bernstorff’s sympathy with England grew stronger still when in 1779 Spain joined her enemies; andhe was niuch inclined, the same winter, to join a triple alliance between Great Britain, Russia and Danmark-Norway, proposed by England for the purpose of compelling the Bourbon powers to accept reasonable terms of ‘peace. But he was overruled by the crown prince Frederick, who thought such a policy too hazardous, when Russia declined to have anything to do with it. Instead of this the Russian chancellor Nikita Panin proposed an armed league to embrace all the neutral powers, for the purpose of protecting neutral shipping in time of war. This league was very similar to one proposed by Bernstorff himself in September 1778 for enforcing the principle “ a free ship makes the cargo free “;
      but as now presented by Russia, he rightly regarded it as directed exclusively against England. He acceded to it indeed (gth of July 1780) because he could not help doing so; but he had previously, bya separate treaty with England, on the 4th of July, come to an understanding with that power as to the meaning of the expression “contraband of war. “ This independence caused great *rath at St Petersburg, where Bernstorff was accused of disloyalty, and ultimately sacrificed to the resentment of the Russian government (13th of November 1780), the more readily as he already disagreed on many important points of domestic administration with the prime minister Hoegh Guldberg. He retired to his Mecklenburg estates, but on the fall of Guldberg four years later, was recalled to office (April 1784). The ensuing thirteen years were perhaps the best days of the old Danish absolutism. The government, under the direction of such enlightened ministers as Bernstorff, Reventlow and others, held themean between Struensee’s extravagant cosmopolitanism and Guldberg’s stiff conservatism. In such noble projects of reform as the emancipation of the serfs (see REVENTLOW) Bernstorff took a leadingpart, and so closely did he associate himself with everything Danish, so popular did he become in the Danish capital, that a Swedish diplomatist expressed the opinion that henceforth Bernstorff couldnot be removed without danger. Liberal-minded as he was, he held that “the will of the nation should be a law to the king,” and he boldly upheld the freedom of the press as the surest of safety-valves.
      Meanwhile foreign complications were again endangering the position of Danmark-Norway. As Bernstorff had predicted, Panin’s neutrality project had resulted in a breach between Great Britain and Russia. Then came Gustavus IlL’s sudden war with Russia in 1788. Bernstorff was bound by treaty to assist Russia in such a contingency, but he took care that the assistance so rendered should be as trifling as possible, to avoid offending Great Britain and Prussia. Still more menacing became the political situation on the outbreak of the French Revolution. Ill-disposed as Bernstorff was towards theJacobins. he now condemned on principle any interference in the domestic affairs of France, and he was persuaded that Danmark’s safest policy was to keep clear of every anti-French coalition. Frolnthis unassailable standpoint he never swerved, despite the promises and even the menaces both of the eastern and the western powers. He was rewarded with complete success and the respect of all the diplomatists in Europe. His neutrality treaty with Sweden (17th of March 1794), for protecting their merchantmen by combined squadrons, was also extremely beneficial to the Scandinavian powers, both commercialiy and politically. Taught by the lesson of Poland, he had, in fact, long since abandoned his former policy of weakening Sweden. Bernstorff’s great faculties appeared, indeed, to mature and increase with age, and his death, on the 21st of June 1797, was regarded in Danmark as a national calamity.
      Count Bernstorff was twice married, his wives being the two sisters of the writers Counts Christian and Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg. He left seven sons and three daughters. Of his sons the best known is Christian Gunther, count von Bernstorff. Another, Count Joachim, was attached to his brother’s fortunes so long as he remained in the Danish service, was associated with him in representing Denmark at the congress of Vienna, and in 1815 was appointed ambassador at that court.
    Person-ID I10016  Reventlow
    Sidst ændret 21 jun. 2020 

    Far Aner Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff
              f. 1708
              d. 1768  (Age 60 år) 
    Mor Dorothea Wilhelmine von Weitersheim
              f. 1699
              d. 1763  (Age 64 år) 
    Familie-ID F32816  Gruppeskema  |  Familietavle

    Familie 1 Aner Henriette Frederikke Stolberg
              f. 12 jan. 1747, Bad Bramstedt, Slesvig-Holsten, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 4 aug. 1782, Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 35 år) 
    Gift 3 dec. 1762  København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted 
    Børn 
    +1. Emilie Louise Henriette Bernstorff
              f. 7 okt. 1766, København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 26 nov. 1855, Preetz, Slesvig-Holsten, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 89 år)
    +2. Johan Hartvig Ernst Bernstorff
              f. 5 apr. 1767
              d. 15 maj 1791  (Age 24 år)
    +3. Christian Günther Bernstorff
              f. 3 apr. 1769, København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 28 mar. 1835, Berlin, Brandenburg, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 65 år)
    Gift: 1x4. Sophie Magdalene Charlotte Bernstorff
              f. 9 maj 1770, København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 30 okt. 1841, Dresden-Neustadt, Sachsen, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 71 år)
    +5. Joachim Frederik Bernstorff
              f. 5 okt. 1771, Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 26 okt. 1835, Cismar, Ostholstein, Slesvig-Holsten, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 64 år)
    +6. Emilie Hedevig Caroline Bernstorff
              f. 7 nov. 1777, København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 4 maj 1811  (Age 33 år)
    Sidst ændret 22 apr. 2015 
    Familie-ID F30411  Gruppeskema  |  Familietavle

    Familie 2 Aner Auguste Louise Stolberg
              f. 7 jan. 1753, Bad Bramstedt, Slesvig-Holsten, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted
              d. 30 jun. 1835, Kiel, Slesvig-Holsten, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted  (Age 82 år) 
    Gift 8 aug. 1783  Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Find alle personer med begivenheder på dette sted 
    Børn 
    Gift: 1x1. Greve Magnus Carl Bernstorff
              f. 18 jul. 1781
              d. 8 dec. 1836  (Age 55 år)
    Sidst ændret 22 apr. 2015 
    Familie-ID F27655  Gruppeskema  |  Familietavle

  • Begivenhedskort
    Link til Google MapsFødt - 28 aug. 1735 - Hannover, Niedersachsen, Tyskland Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsGift - 3 dec. 1762 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBarn - Emilie Louise Henriette Bernstorff - 7 okt. 1766 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBarn - Christian Günther Bernstorff - 3 apr. 1769 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBarn - Sophie Magdalene Charlotte Bernstorff - 9 maj 1770 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBarn - Joachim Frederik Bernstorff - 5 okt. 1771 - Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBarn - Emilie Hedevig Caroline Bernstorff - 7 nov. 1777 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsGift - 8 aug. 1783 - Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsDød - 21 jun. 1797 - København, Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt, Danmark Link til Google Earth
    Link til Google MapsBegravelse - - Dreilützow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Tyskland Link til Google Earth
     = Link til Google Earth 
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    Dokumenter
    Andreas Peter Bernstorff
og „den nye Indretning i Landbruget' paa Bernstorff.
    Andreas Peter Bernstorff og „den nye Indretning i Landbruget' paa Bernstorff.
    Aage Friis, 1912, Historisk tidskrift